Electric Vehicles/ Electric Cars : How Do They Work

Welcome Guys.

Today I am going to discuss about Electrical Vehicles (cars) which are eco-friendly and changed the world's technology from traditional Internal Combustion engine cars to Induction motor cars.

Introduction: 

An electric car is a vehicle propelled by one or more electric motors rather than a fuel or internal combustion engines. The energy is stored in the lithium ion rechargeable battery packs. Electric cars are one of the best type of eco or green cars. 

The 1st ever electric car was invented in 19th century. Here it is clear that the electric cars are not future technology they already existed till the internal combustion engines invented when there is discovery of fossil fuels. During 20th century, mass production of these fossil fuels, gasoline oils and other crude oil made them much cheaper than those battery packs. This led to the decline in use of electric vehicles.

Environmental Concerns:


electric-vehicle
EV's are Eco-friendly Green Vehicles (source: wikipedia)
                                
An Electric Car have several benefits over conventional internal combustion engine cars. One of the most important is pollution reductions, electric cars literally emits zero pollution. And there is  no consumption of fuels which are now very low in Earths crust. But there is two disadvantages, one is electric car battery packs are made up of lithium ion cells where lithium is very costly because of it low abundance(rare earth element) and difficulty in extraction. 

Other disadvantage is charging takes time near the charge port stations. But there is no more problem, these two are also in research and there will be  completely perfect electric vehicles by 2025 estimated. These lithium ion batteries are now trying to be replaced by other abundant element batteries/ Charging issue can be solved by fast charge circuits.

Energy Efficiency:

Comparison Between Electrical and Fuel Vehicles
(Values  may differ between types)
Type of vehicleFuel Economy
(mpg equivalent)
RangeProduction cost
for given range
Reduction in CO2
compared to conventional
Abundance of source (2020)
Conventional ICE10–78Long
(400–600 mi)
Low0%Will last for 45years
Biodiesel18–71Long
(360–540 mi)
Lowvaries depending on biodiesel sourceAgriculture
production
Electrical
(Lithium Ion Battery pack)
54–118Shorter
(73–150 mi)
Luxury models
Medium
(160–300 mi)
High

Very high
varies depending
on energy source
20mg per kg earthcrust
Key:mpg is milesper gallon
Internal Combustion Engines have thermodynamic limits of converting fuel into energy, that is only a fraction of energy can be converted from burning the fuel source. Gasoline engines effectively use only 15% of the fuel energy where diesel engines use 20% while the electrical vehicles have efficiency of 69-72% when discharging and around 59-62%  when recharging.

Structure:

Electrifying Automobiles: The Industry Disruption, Battery ...
The Induction Motor and Batteries setup in EV (source: Learn Engineering)
   
Electrical vehicles use Induction motors which have a good speed control over conventional IC engine. Induction motor have a speed range of 0-18000 RPM whereas IC engine have a speed control of  2000-4000 RPM and need a transmission, because IC engine should not be directly connected to the drive wheel. Whereas Induction motor have its own capability of speed range and self control over torque. Additional transmission or any other gearbox is not required for this Induction motors.

But an Inverter is used for induction motor, this inverter acts as brain to the Induction motor. More over, electric vehicles have more space than fuel vehicles. The battery pack is used lower down as it is the heart weight of the car, to lower the center of gravity and thereby increases its stability.

Safety:

The weight of the batteries themselves usually make an Electric Vehicle heavier than  Fuel Vehicle, in a collision, the occupants of  a heavy vehicle will suffer fewer and less serious injuries than the occupants of a light vehicle; therefore, the additional weight brings safety benefits despite having a negative effect on the car's performance. Depending on where the battery is located, it may lower the center of gravity, increasing driving stability, lowering the risk of accidents through the loss of control.
More over, IC engine or Fuel Cars catch fire easily than a Electric Car, promoting further safety.

For Detailed Animated Video:


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