Today I am going to explain how lithium-ion rechargeable cells are used in Electric Vehicles. Previously I made an article each on both working of lithium-ion cell and Electric Vehicles. With no more lag, lets enter into the topic.
Electric cars are one of the eco-cars. These are much environmental friendly. Electric Cars or Vehicles use battery packs which use rechargeable lithium-ion cells. These battery packs are discussed below.
|The schematic of interior of EV (source: LearnEngineering)|
Each cell used in the battery pack is made of lithium ions. These are the best ever rechargeable cells made. This cells are high efficient of converting chemical energy to electrical energy. These cells and packed in such a way(in figure) that the total output of the battery pack is stable.
The discharging and recharging of each cell in the battery pack is made even so that there will be no damage to a single cell due to over charging or over discharging. In detail, the arrangement is made so that every cell contributes at every point of time evenly.
What if we use a single giant cell instead of battery pack containing many cells??
If we use a single giant cell then while charging and discharging of the cell, the cell takes more strain and gets more heated, cell life will drastically change resulting in damage of car parts. And while charging it takes high time and while discharging it go down as fast due to more strain on that single gianth cell, if we use a number of cells in a intelligent arrangement then charging, discharging and heating all takes evening on each and every cell.
Hence having very less strain on each cell so that there will be a very good and high battery life.
|Cooling Process of Lithium Battery Pack (source: wikipedia)|
There are more heating effects in battery pack of electric cars and this is resolved by the use of coolant. This coolant is very intelligently sent that the cooling takes place for each and every cell of the battery pack. There are certain number of cells in each module and these modules together form the battery pack. The purpose of this division of modules is to make cooling of modules separate and more efficient.
If we pass coolant through the battery pack once without modules, at the middle of the journey, coolant gets heated and further cells will not be cooled and will damaged, Hence each module is cooled separately. The heated water glycol is sent through the radiator which is fitted in front of the vehicle. And finally the cooled water glycol is again sent to the battery pack, this is a closed and continuous system. This way EV cars are made with their battery packs.
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